Thursday, January 19, 2017
Human-System Co-Creative Design of Resilience for Socio-Technical Systems
Prof. Tetsuo Sawaragi, Kyoto University, Japan
Today, the concept of resilience is used in diverse fields. In every field, the term is commonly used to represent “ability to adapt to a changing environment and to survive in a flexible manner despite facing difficulties.” Furthermore, the concept of resilience has received increased attention as abilities for risk-aversion and crisis control that are needed in every level of societies, from individuals to entities such as businesses and administrative organizations. In the past, C.S. Holling, a Canadian ecologist and a former director of IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) proposed to use “resilience” in the field of social science due to that ecological systems had ability to restore the original state upon environmental changes, which is similar to the homeostasis that living organisms have (Holling, 1973). This definition of the resilience put an emphasis on its aspects of unpredictable responsiveness to external disturbances as well as self-organized phenomena, which seemed to be close to the definition of complex adaptive systems. This talk summarizes the technical challenges in order to consider the implementation of a concept of resilience into systems, which are divided into the following three issues; 1) development of systemization technology for risk prediction, 2) development of systemization technology for response to emergent situations, and 3) cultivation of human resources who will conduct recovery or reconstruction: development of systems that foster awareness for safety and human resources. Then, challenges to tackle with the resilience to fluctuations in production plans, in work quality, in empirical knowledge and in organizations are presented. The common background idea is that establishment of resilience requires the co-creation between human beings and systems. It is needed to design systems that derive and cultivate the existing empirical knowledge, which require to provide adequate constraints and supports with workers, and to accordingly derive the workers’ responses. Not by eliminating human beings or completely limiting their work, but by pursuing system design that allows some human judgment left in the loop, resilience can be established through the fusion of knowledge of human beings and automation.
Tetsuo Sawaragi is a professor in the Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Science in Kyoto University’s Graduate School of Engineering. Sawaragi received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Systems Engineering from Kyoto University in 1981, 1983 and 1988, respectively. From 1991 to 1992, he was a visiting scholar in the Dept. of Engineering-Economic Systems of Stanford University, USA. He is engaged in research on Systems Engineering, Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, particularly in the development of human-machine collaborative systems. He is now engaged in the Program for Leading Graduate School of “Inter-Graduate School Program for Design Studies” fully supported by the MEXT. He has served as a chair of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society (IEEE SMC) Japan Chapter, president of the Human Interface Society, president of the Institute of Systems, Control and Information Engineers (ISCIE), and is currently a vice-chair of the Technical Committee on Human-Machine Systems (TC 4.5.) of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC).
Friday, January 20, 2017
Brain-Machine Interfaces with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Prof. Keum-Shik Hong (洪 金 植), Pusan National University, Korea
A feedback control concept of human brain will be proposed, in which fMRI, EEG, fNIRS are considered as sensors and rTMS and tDCS are considered as actuators. Various imaging techniques including invasive and noninvasive methods will be briefly discussed. Particularly, fNIRS image will be the main focus, which is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique that measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The major advantages of fNIRS are its low cost, portability, and good temporal resolution as a plausible solution to real-time imaging. Recent research had showed the great potential of fNIRS as a tool for brain-computer interfaces. In this talk, the existing methods for fNIRS signals are reviewed and some recent advances are discussed. Several examples of brain-machine interfaces are also illustrated.
Lab website http://cogno.pusan.ac.kr
Keum-Shik Hong received his B.S. degree in Mechanical Design and Production Engineering from Seoul National University in 1979, his M.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Columbia University, New York, in 1987, and both an M.S. degree in Applied Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) in 1991. He joined the School of Mechanical Engineering at Pusan National University (PNU) in 1993. In 2009, under the auspices of the World Class University Program of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) of Korea, he established the Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, PNU.
Dr. Hong has served as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology (2008-2011), as Associate Editor of Automatica (2000-2006), and as Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems (2003-2005). He currently serves as Associate Editor for Brain-Computer Interfaces and the Frontiers of Neuro-robotics. He was a past president of ICROS, and is currently a Vice President of Asian Control Association. He was the Organizing Chair of the ICROS-SICE International Joint Conference 2009, Fukuoka, Japan.
His Integrated Dynamics and Control Engineering Laboratory was designated a National Research Laboratory by the MEST of Korea in 2003. He has received many awards including the Best Paper Award from the KFSTS of Korea (1999), the F. Harashima Mechatronics Award (2003), the IJCAS Scientific Activity Award (2004), the Automatica Certificate of Outstanding Service (2006), the Presidential Award of Korea (2007), the ICROS Achievement Award (2009), the IJCAS Contribution Award (2010), the Best Teaching Professor Award (2010, PNU), the JMST Contribution Award (2011), the IJCAS Contribution Award (2011), and the Premier Professor Award (2011, PNU), among others. He is a member of ASME, IEEE, ICROS, KSME, KSPE, KIEE, and KINPR. Dr. Hong’s current research interests include brain-computer interface, nonlinear systems theory, adaptive control, distributed parameter systems, autonomous systems, and innovative control applications in brain engineering.